American College Of Surgeons - Inspiring Quality: Highest Standards, Better Outcomes


ACS Archives Highlights is a series showcasing the vibrant history of the American College of Surgeons, its members, and the history of surgery. For further information on our featured highlights, search the Archives Catalog or contact the ACS Archivist.

Featured Highlights

General Paul R. Hawley, circa 1955. ACS Archives.General Paul R. Hawley (1891–1965)

Executive Director of the College from 1950 to 1961, General Hawley was an important figure in the College's history. By 1950 the College had grown in size and needed a director who could work closely with the Board of Regents as well as one that could organize the staff, supervise, and direct their work. With a medical degree, and a PhD in public health, Gen. Hawley arrived at the College with a distinguished record of 30 years in the Medical Corps of the U.S. Army.
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Marion Rapp (1920–2011)

Marion Rapp was one of the most loyal and longest-serving staff members in the American College of Surgeons’ (ACS) history, and played an integral role in shaping the College during the second half of the 20th century. Born in 1920, she joined the ACS in January 1953 as personal assistant to then College Director, Gen. Paul R. Hawley, MD, FACS(Hon), an innovative leader and a man Ms. Rapp deeply admired.
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55 East Erie: ACS Headquarters Building 1963–199855 East Erie Street: ACS Headquarters Building 1963–1998

Back in the mid-1950s, it became clear that the demands for office space could not be satisfied by the buildings that the American College of Surgeons (ACS) occupied on Erie and Rush. The four buildings: 660 N. Rush, 54 E. Erie, the Nickerson building, and the Murphy Memorial building, were either at capacity or not suited for office space. As a result, a Building Committee was appointed by the Board of Regents in October 1956 with Loyal Davis, MD, FACS, as its chairman. The purpose of the Building Committee was to find a new site to house the headquarters and determine how to fund the project.
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All Highlights

College History

3-D Movies at the Clinical Congress
55 East Erie Street: ACS Headquarters Building 1963–1998
American Clinical Surgical Society German-Austrian Tour (1912)
American Gynecological Club travels to Scandinavia (Summer 1926)
Bozzini Endoscope
Bronze Doors of the Murphy Memorial Building
Committee on Standardization of Medical and Surgical Supplies and Equipment of President Woodrow Wilson’s WWI General Medical Board
The Evolution of the Fellowship Pledge
Fosdick Commission
Four Physicians Operating on a Patient in an Operating Room (1902)
General Medical Board, Executive Committee
Gorgas Memorial Institute for Tropical and Preventive Medicine, Dedication of the Laboratory
The Great Mace
Hippocratic Oath: Isabelle Martin’s Gift to the American College of Surgeons
History of Surgery Poster Competition
Invitation to First Annual Meeting of the American College of Surgeons (1914)
Journal of the American College of Surgeons Celebrates its Centennial
Martins in Fiji, The (February 1924)
Minimum Standard for Hospitals (1919)
Murphy Auditorium
"RN: Serving All Mankind"
Sectional Meetings
Visiting Doctors from Abroad

Clinical Congress

Clinical Congress Then and Now: Convocation (1949 and 2003)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Convocation Procession (1949 and 2003?)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Distinguished Service Award (1959 and 2009)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Exhibit Hall (1950 and 2005)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Member Services (1951 and 2009)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Scientific Exhibits (1954 and 2008)
Clinical Congress Then and Now: Young Fellows Association (YFA) (1980 and 2011?)


Andrews, Edward Wyllys, MD, FACS (1856–1927)
Beal, John M., MD, FACS (1915–2013)
Besley, Frederic Atwood, MD, FACS (1868–1944)
Bevan, Arthur Dean , MD, FACS (1861–1943)
Bispham, Colonel William N., MD, FACS (1875–1945)
Blalock, Alfred, MD, FACS
Bowman, John G. PhD, First Director of the American College of Surgeons
Bridge, Norman M., MD (1844–1925)
Clark, Herbert C., and the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory
Clarkson, Grosvenor B. (1882–1937)
Codman, Ernest A., MD, FACS (1869–1940)
Cole, Warren H., MD, FACS (1899–1990)
Coller, Frederick A., MD, FACS (1887–1964)
Crile, George, MD, FACS (1864–1943)
Crowder, Provost Marshall General Enoch H. (1859–1932)
Crowell, Bowman C., MD (1879–1951)
Davis, Edward P., MD, FACS, President, Volunteer Medical Service (1896-1982)
Davis, Loyal, MD, FACS (1896–1982)
Dickens, Helen Octavia, MD, FACS (1909–2001)
Finney, John M. T., MD, FACS, first president of the American College of Surgeons
Graham, Evarts A. , MD, FACS (1883–1957)
Greenough, Robert Battey, MD, FACS (1871–1937)
Grimm, Eleanor K. (1891–1973)
Hanlon, C. Rollins, MD, FACS (1915–2011)
Hawley, General Paul R. (1891-1965)
Icons in Surgery (formerly Heroes in Surgery)
Ireland, Major General Merritte Weber
Jenkins, Hilger Perry , MD, FACS (1902–1970)
Jonasson, Olga, MD, FACS (1934–2006)
Kanavel, Allen B., MD, FACS
MacEachern, Malcolm T., MD, CM (1881–1956)
Mackenzie, Sir James, (1853–1925)
Martin, Edward, MD, FACS (1859–1938)
Martin, Franklin H., MD, FACS, Portrait of (1857–1935)
Martin, Franklin, Testimonials for, 1927
Martin, Isabelle, War Service
Martin, Isabelle and Franklin
Matas, Rudolph, MD, FACS (1860–1957)
Mayo, William, Friendship with Franklin Martin
McKibbin-Harper, Mary, MD (1873–1961)
Mendonca, Jose, Surgeon of the Faculty of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Moynihan, Sir Berkeley George Andrew, Lord Moynihan of Leeds (1865–1936)
Murphy, John Benjamin, MD, FACS (1857–1916)
Naffziger, Howard C., MD, FACS (1884–1961)
Newquist, Melvin N., and the ACS Industrial Medicine Program
Ochsner, Albert J., MD, FACS (1858–1925)
Putti, Vittorio (1880–1940)
Rapp, Marion (1920–2011)
Sandrok, Edward George (1913–1967)
Saunders, H. Prather, MD, FACS
Scudder, Charles Locke, MD (1860–1949)
Senn, Nicholas Club Dinner, The, 1906
Sheldon, George F., MD, FACS (1934–2013), In Memoriam
Sherman, Harry Mitchell, MD, FACS (1856–1921)
Spencer, Frank C., MD, FACS
Squier, J. Bentley, MD, FACS
Starr, Frederick Newton Gisborne, MD, FACS
Stephens, Harold Montelle (1886–1955)
Stephenson, George W., MD, FACS (1902–1998)
Stewart, George David, MD, FACS
Stokes, Charles F., MD, FACS (1863–1931)
Wangensteen, Owen H., MD, PhD, FACS (1898–1981)
Wilson, Woodrow (US President) Writes to Franklin Martin, MD, FACS
Wright, Louis Tompkins, MD, FACS (1891–1952)